This book was born from the synthesis of the rapidly proliferating field of cerebrovascular disease research, excitement about effective new imaging and therapeutic strategies, and the need to timely educate clinicians about the changing playing field for a common, serious and expensive syndrome – transient ischemic attacks (TIA). TIAs can now stand on their own as an important, and, at times, unique aspect of symptomatic cerebrovascular disease, distinct enough to warrant a textbook in its own right. With new information on a worrisome and serious natural history, growing knowledge of risk factors and their management, sophisticated neuroimaging techniques, and a broadening armamentarium of therapeutic approaches, the clinician is now faced with multiple levels of decision making. Does one admit the patient with a recent TIA to the hospital? What are the optimal imaging and diagnostic strategies? What antiplatelet agent to use? What is the role for surgery and interventional techniques? How do I optimally control associated risk factors? This book serves to provide the most current information to help guide clinicians through the best decisions to care for their patients, using evidence-based recommendations when available and expert opinion when no good data exist.